Technical MIDI Info

This page contains more technical information on how MIDI is handled by Musink. Information is for the most recent version of Musink only.

Each voice can have its MIDI channel set independently in voice settings. Avaliable channels range from 1-16 inclusive. Channel 10 is reserved for percussion (as required by the GM Standard).

Musink will only send MIDI to one device at a time. Musink is not a 'MIDI Device', and so is not visible to other programs as such.

The MIDI device list is requested from Windows. As such, if your device is not listed, it is highly likely that it is not functioning correctly, or is not registered with Windows as a MIDI device. Device lists are requested when initially run, and when refresh devices is clicked. For more information, see Playback Devices.

For information on connecting to virtual instruments, see Playback Devices.

Gracenotes are interpreted as 32nd notes appearing before their primary note. When gracenotes appear before the first note in the entire MIDI file, an additional bar, in a 1/4 time signature, is added to the start of the piece.

Musink does not export any metadata during playback. The following metadata are included in exported MIDI files:

  1. Time signature information
  2. Key signature information
  3. Tempo information
  4. Volume information

All time signatures are eight 32nds per quarter. Common time is exported as 4/4. Cut common is exported as 2/2.

Each note and gracenote is sent as a note-on message, followed by a note-off message according to the duration of the note written. Duration is reduced by Staccato, Staccatissimo, and Snap-Pizzicato marks. Tied notes of the same pitch have a single note-on and note-off between them (allowing note durations longer than a bar). Velocity and volume are set through MIDI modifiers. Rests are not sent as MIDI messages.

Musink interprets C4 as Middle C. This can be changed in Musink Pro through Program and Project Options. For MIDI-input devices, see MIDI Input Device Settings.

Unfortunately, there is no official standard for which note is Middle C; some programs use C3, some use C4, and others use C5. If you import a Musink-created MIDI file into a 3rd-party application to find it is an octave higher or lower, this is because that program uses a different octave. C4 was chosen to avoid any two-octave differences with 3rd-party software, which could have caused issues with some very high or very low notes. An option to set middle C is being considered for future versions.

Musink supports a slightly wider range of written notes than the MIDI protocol. Pitches which are higher than MIDI allows are exported as the highest legal MIDI value, and vice versa for low notes.

Musink interprets notes as being written in concert pitch; it does not transpose pitches based on the instrument. i.e. A written-pitch of C is sent through MIDI as a C, regardless of whether the instrument is a piano or B-flat clarinet.

Users of Musink Pro can transpose staves individually by setting transposition in staves and voices settings.

Each voice can have its instrument (program) set independently in voice settings. Instruments are initially set based on stave names when a section or project is first created. Subsequent stave-name changes will not automatically change the MIDI instrument.

Musink sends Hold Pedal 1 (Controller Type 64) messages when it comes across Pedal Up and Pedal Down marks. To add these marks, see Standalone Marks. This functionality was introduced in Musink version

The default tempo is 100 beats per minute (bpm). For information on how to change tempo, see MIDI modifiers

Operation Minimum Maximum
Playback 10 bpm 220 bpm
Export 1 bpm No limit

From version, MIDI files created in Musink are 480 ticks per quarter. Previous versions used 24 ticks per quarter (equivalent to 32nd-notes in an eighth-note-sextuplet).

The following functions are not currently supported by Musink with normal notation but can be added through MIDI marks in Musink Pro.

Message Type Notes
Polyphonic Key Pressure (aftertouch)
Control Change
Program Change Sent once at start of track only
Channel Pressure (aftertouch)
Pitch Wheel